Philosophy and Artificial Intelligence 2022
Jobst Landgrebe and Barry Smith
MAP, USI, Lugano, Spring 2022
Much of the material for this class is derived from the book Why Machines Will Never Rule the World: Artificial Intelligence without Fear, currently in production with Routledge, co-authored by Landgrebe and Smith.
Jobst Landgrebe is the founder and CEO of Cognotekt, GmBH, an AI company based in Cologne specialised in the design and implementation of holistic AI solutions. He has 17 years experience in the AI field, 8 years as a management consultant and software architect. He has also worked as a physician and mathematician.
Barry Smith is one of the world's most widely cited philosophers. He has contributed primarily to the field of applied ontology, which means applying philosophical ideas derived from analytical metaphysics to the concrete practical problems which arise where attempts are made to compare or combine heterogeneous bodies of data.
- 1 Tuesday March 1 2022 15.30 - 18.15 (3h): Why Machines Will Never Rule the World
- 2 Wednesday March 2 2022 13.30 - 16.15 (3h) The human mind; animal, human and machine intelligence
- 3 Thursday March 3 2022 08.30 - 12.00 (4h) From the Turing test to the missing machine will
- 4 Tuesday May 17 2022 13.30 - 16.15 (A23, 3h) AI Ethics - Why Not Robot Cops?
- 5 Wednesday May 18 2022 08.30 - 11.15 (A23, 3h) Digital Immortality
- 6 Thursday May 19 2022 08.30 - 11.15 (A23, 3h) Intelligence and Other Capabilities
- 7 Monday May 23 2022 08.30 - 11.15 (A23, 3h) Logic and Complex Systems: Part 1
- 8 Tuesday May 24 2022 13.30 - 16.15 (A23, 3h) Logic and Complex Systems: Part 2
- 9 Wednesday May 25 2022 08.30-11.15 (A23, 3h) Student Presentations and Concluding Survey
- 10 Course Description
Tuesday March 1 2022 15.30 - 18.15 (3h): Why Machines Will Never Rule the World
- Room: A23
- Announcement: Why Machines Will Never Rule the World
Introduction to the class
What is computation?
What is a language?
- The Turing Test and the problem of natural language production
- John Searle: Minds, Brains, and Programs
- Jobst Landgrebe and Barry Smith: There is no Artificial General Intelligence
- Announcement: Why Machines Will Never Rule the World
Wednesday March 2 2022 13.30 - 16.15 (3h) The human mind; animal, human and machine intelligence
- Room: A23
The classical psychological definitions of intelligence are:
- A. the ability to adapt to new situations (applies both to humans and to animals)
- B. a very general mental capability (possessed only by humans) that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly, and learn from experience
What are the essential marks of human intelligence?
For consideration in Wednesday's session: to what extent can artificial intelligence be achieved?
- Linda S. Gottfredson. Mainstream Science on Intelligence. In: Intelligence 24 (1997), pp. 13–23.
The Legg-Hutter Definition of Intelligence
What is it that researchers and engineers are trying to do when they talk of achieving ‘Artificial Intelligence’?
To what extent can AI be achieved?
Problems with the Legg-Hutter Definition of Intelligence
- Shane Legg and Marcus Hutter: Universal Intelligence: A Definition of Machine Intelligence
- Jobst Landgrebe and Barry Smith: Making AI Meaningful Again
Thursday March 3 2022 08.30 - 12.00 (4h) From the Turing test to the missing machine will
The Turing test
What is consciousness?
What is will?
Can machines have a will?
Tuesday May 17 2022 13.30 - 16.15 (A23, 3h) AI Ethics - Why Not Robot Cops?
Why no Robot Cops?
Could a machine have goals?
What is the basis of ethics as applied to humans?
- Value ethics
On what basis should we build an AI ethics?
AI ethics is (a) impossible? (b) unnecessary?
Wednesday May 18 2022 08.30 - 11.15 (A23, 3h) Digital Immortality
Jobs for Philosophers
The Meaning of Life
Thursday May 19 2022 08.30 - 11.15 (A23, 3h) Intelligence and Other Capabilities
Capabilities, or: What do IQ tests measure?
Is Psychology Finished?
Monday May 23 2022 08.30 - 11.15 (A23, 3h) Logic and Complex Systems: Part 1
- The Limits of Mathematical Models
- All science requires mathematical models
- Types of models 1: descriptive, explanatory, predictive
- Types of models 2: qualitative, quantitative
- All predictive models are quantitative
- Synoptic models
- Adequate models
- All AI engineering requires mathematical models
- Explicit and implicit mathematical models
- System elements and system interactions
- Systems are fiat entities: they are a product of delimitation
- System boundaries
- Relatively isolated systems
- 'The Limits and Potential of AI
- Initial utterance production
- Modelling dialogue dynamics mathematically
- Mathematical models of human conversations
- Current state-of-the-art in dialogue systems
- Why conversation machines are doomed to fail
- Chapter 11 Why machines will not master social interaction 224
- No AI emulation of social behaviour
- Some examples
- No machine intersubjectivity
- No machine social norms
- AI and legal norms
- No machine emulation of morality
- No explicit ethical agents
- No AGI in the kill chain
Tuesday May 24 2022 13.30 - 16.15 (A23, 3h) Logic and Complex Systems: Part 2
- AI and the Mathematics of Complex Systems
- Bayesian networks
- Complex systems
- Comprehensive and partial models
- The scope of extended Newtonian mathematics
- Seven Properties of complex systems
- Examples of complex systems
- Human beings as complex systems
- Complex systems of complex systems
- Animate complex systems are organized and stable
- Mathematical models of complex systems
- Multivariate distributions
- Adequate models for complex systems
- Predictive models of complex systems
- Why we ain’t rich
- Example of a social fact
- Why we ain’t rich
- Approaches to complex system modelling
- Naïve approaches
- Consequences for AI applications
- Refined approaches
- Explicit networks
- Evolutionary process models
- Entropy models
- Complex system emulation requires complex systems
- AI and the Ontology of Power, Social Interaction and Ethics
- Preliminary Video
- Chris Redden: "Making AI Meaningful Again"
- Dimitrios Galanis: "Searle, Aristotle, and the Mind-Body Problem"
Wednesday May 25 2022 08.30-11.15 (A23, 3h) Student Presentations and Concluding Survey
Files Student Presentations
- 08:35 Shahrzad Ajoudi: Chalmers, "The Virtual and the Real"
- 08:50 Federico Spaletti: Clark and Chalmers, "The Extended Mind"
- 09:05 Matteo Andre: Searle: "Minds, Brains, and Programs"
- 09:20 Alberto Carrascon: Anderson et al.: "Artificial Life and the Chinese Room Argument"
- 09:35 Zechen Wu: Aaronson: "The Ghost in the Quantum Turing Machine"
- 09:50 Break
- 10:00 Tyson Elenko: Boden: "Creativity and AI"
- 10:15 Simon Spaeth: Chalmers: "Subsymbolic Computation and the Chinese Room"
- 10:30 Guanyu Chen: Boden: "Autonomy and Artificiality"
- 10:45 Gerit Tänzer: "VUCA"
An Introduction to AI for Philosophers
(AI experts are invited to criticize what I have to say here)
An Introduction to Philosophy for Computer Scientists
(Philosophers are invited to criticize what I have to say here)
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the subfield of Computer Science devoted to developing programs that enable computers to display behavior that can (broadly) be characterised as intelligent. On the strong version, the ultimate goal of AI is to create an artificial system that is as intelligent as a human being. Recent striking successes such as AlphaGo have convinced many not only that this objective is obtainable but also that in a not too distant future machines will become even more intelligent than human beings.
The actual and possible developments in AI open up a series of striking questions such as:
- Can a computer have a conscious mind?
- Can it have desires and emotions?
- Would machine intelligence, if there is such a thing, be something comparable to human intelligence or something quite different?
In addition, these developments make it possible for us to consider a series of philosophical questions in a new light, including:
- What is personal identity? Could a machine have something like a personal identity? Would I really survive if the contents of my brain were uploaded to the cloud?
- What is it for a human to behave in an ethical manner? (Could there be something like machine ethics? Could machines used in fighting wars be programmed to behave ethically?)
- What is a meaningful life? If routine, meaningless work in the future is performed entirely by machines, will this make possible new sorts of meaningful lives on the part of humans?
After introducing the relevant ideas and tools from both AI and philosophy, all the aforementioned questions will be thoroughly addressed in class discussions following lectures by Drs Facchini and Smith and presentations of relevant papers by the students.
Further Background Reading
- Max More and Natasha Vita-More (Eds.), The Transhumanist Reader: Classical and Contemporary Essays on the Science, Technology, and Philosophy of the Human Future, Wiley-Blackwell, 2013.