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'''Philosophy on Rails'''
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'''Philosophy on Rails: An Introduction to Ontology'''
  
Special Topic PHI 579
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Special Topic PHI 579  
  
'''Registration''': Class#: [http://www.buffalo.edu/class-schedule?switch=showclass&semester=fall&division=GRAD&dept=PHI&regnum=xxxxx xxxxx]
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Fall Semester 2020, Monday 1-3:40pm
  
'''Instructors''': [http://ontology.buffalo.edu/smith/shortcv.htm Barry Smith], [http://davidglimbaugh.com/ David Limbaugh]
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'''Venue:''' Capen 240
 +
 
 +
'''Registration''': Class#: [http://www.buffalo.edu/class-schedule?switch=showclass&semester=fall&division=GRAD&dept=PHI&regnum=24202 24202]
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 +
'''Instructor''': [http://ontology.buffalo.edu/smith/shortcv.htm Barry Smith]
  
 
'''Prerequisites''': Open to all persons with an undergraduate degree and some knowledge of philosophy.
 
'''Prerequisites''': Open to all persons with an undergraduate degree and some knowledge of philosophy.
  
'''Office hours''': By appointment via email at [mailto:phismith@buffalo.edu phismith@buffalo.edu] or [mailto:dglimbau@buffalo.edu dglimbau@buffalo.edu]
+
'''Office hours''': By appointment via email at [mailto:phismith@buffalo.edu phismith@buffalo.edu]  
  
 
== '''The Course''' ==
 
== '''The Course''' ==
''Course Description'': Philosophy has been crippled by the degree to which different philosophers fail to define their terms in a common framework of definitions that would enable comparison of different theories and arguments. This class will explore a new strategy for resolving this problem resting on the use of a common, standard ontology (BFO, ISO/IEC 21838-2) as a framework for definitions.
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''Course Description'': Progress in philosophy has been hampered by the fact that philosophers have no shared, controlled vocabulary which they can use as a common starting point when defining their terms. Even mundane terms like ‘world’, ‘fact’, and ‘harm’ have such a variety of meanings that when competing theories use such terms their defenders can often be accused of talking past one another and of engaging in merely verbal disputes. This is in contrast to what is the case in the natural sciences, where consistent terminology – as codified for example in the Periodic Table and the International Standard System of Units – is recognized as indispensable. To put it bluntly, because of the use of standards, the natural sciences are collectively more successful than philosophers at resolving divergent points-of-view in their respective fields. Of course, the idea of developing a shared system of philosophical terms and definitions has been advanced in different forms already, for example by Aristotle in the ''Categories'', by Leibniz in ''De Arte Combinatoria'', by the early Wittgenstein, and by Carnap in his ''Logical Structure of the World''. Similar methods are nowadays being successfully applied, but this is occurring primarily outside philosophy, in areas such as biomedical informatics and industrial engineering.  
  
''Course Structure'': This is a three credit hour graduate seminar, with a practical exercise forming part of each class. The final session will be structured around youtube videos created by the students in the class. Students will be trained in the basic tools and methods of ontology, and become involved in the attempt to use BFO to capture data about philosophical methods, hypotheses and results.
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This course will address three goals:
  
''Target Audience'': The course is open to all interested students, and will presupposen no knowledge of philosophy or of intelligence analysis.
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:'''First''', it will explore how to create and use a standard philosophical vocabulary. This will include exploiting modern developments in computational ontology, including the world’s first [https://www.iso.org/standard/74572.html international standard ontology].
 +
:'''Second''', it will explore the ways in which building a restricted philosophical vocabulary can help to arbitrate philosophical disputes in areas such as time, mental content, modality, and obligation.
 +
:'''Third''', it will provide an introduction to the methods of contemporary applied ontological that are being used both inside and outside philosophy.
 +
:'''Fourth''', it will take students through all the steps involved in writing a paper and submitting it for publication and/or for presentation at a conference. Some of these papers will be authored by teams of up to 3 people (students can write alone, or belong to up to two teams).
  
'''Schedule:'''
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''Course Structure'': This is a three credit hour graduate seminar, with a practical exercise forming part of each class.  Students will be trained in the basic tools and methods of ontology, and of how ontology can be used to help consistent formalization of philosophical and other theories.
 +
In the initial weeks the practical exercise will take the form of one-to-one interactions with Dr Smith determining the topics and strategy for paper writing. In the middle weeks it will take the form of presentation of critiques of submitted drafts. In the final sessions it will be structured around preparation of powerpoint slides to support class presentations by students of their written work, presentations which will be recorded. .
 +
 
 +
''Target Audience'': The course is open to all interested students with an undergraduate degree and some knowledge of philosophy.
 +
 
 +
----
 +
 
 +
== Preamble ==
 +
 
 +
Background Reading: [https://buffalo.box.com/v/Whats-wrong-with-AP What's wrong with analytic philosophy?]
 +
 
 +
The philosophical methodology that underlies this course produced Basic Formal Ontology (BFO), which was approved by the International Standards Organization in 2019 as standard ISO/IED 21838-2. A textual version of BFO is available [https://buffalo.app.box.com/v/BFO-2020-Supplementary-Files/file/647823963055 here]. A BFO textbook is available ;https://mitpress.mit.edu/books/building-ontologies-basic-formal-ontology here].
 +
 
 +
Students are invited to explore possible ways of doing philosophy constrained by BFO or by similar top-level ontologies. 
 +
 
 +
They are invited to identify ways in which using BFO and ontologies conformant to BFO might be of benefit to philosophers, for example in tagging philosophical literature to make it more easily discoverable. How would one build out an ontology, whose terms could be used to tag philosophical literature? How does the categorization strategy used by PhilPapers measure up to the standards of what would be needed by an ontology-grounded tagging system?
 +
 
 +
A collection of uses of BFO can be found [http://basic-formal-ontology.org/users.html here].
 +
 
 +
''Proposed Topics for Papers''
 +
 
 +
The topics listed under successive dates, below, are intended at this stage only to provide an initial set of ideas for possible papers. We will decide as the semester proceeds on what the focus should be for each week. Here are some further ideas for possible papers:
 +
 
 +
:[https://ndpr.nd.edu/news/when-words-are-called-for-a-defense-of-ordinary-language-philosophy/ How did Austin's military experience in WWII influence his mode of doing philosophy] (Or: Can philosophy be performed through teamwork?)
 +
:How can the [https://philpapers.org/categories.pl Philpapers category system] be improved?
 +
:How can the [https://philpapers.org/help/categorization.html rules for categorizing papers in Philpapers] be improved?
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:Formalizing the [https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/capability-approach/ Amartya Sen/Martha Nussbaum ontology of capabilities]
 +
:In many cases papers would consist in presentations of ontologies or classifications or sets of formal or semi-formal definitions of philosophical relevant terms. Examples of the such classifications might be:
 +
::1. A classification of responses to the Gettier argument
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::2. A classification of (a) definitions of disease coupled with (b) proposed counterexamples for each disease-type.
 +
::3. A comprehensive catalogue of definitions of 'harm'
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::4. A comprehensive catalogue of definitions of causality
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:Formalization of the content of any philosophical work, as for example in [https://www.jstor.org/stable/20115250?seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents Charles Jarrett, "The Logical Structure of Spinoza's ''Ethics'', Part I", ''Synthese'', 37 (1), 1978]
  
 
==August 31: Introduction: Philosophy on Rails==
 
==August 31: Introduction: Philosophy on Rails==
  
:[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w5I8kxqDSeo Video]
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Philosophy on Rails
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:[https://buffalo.box.com/v/Philosophy-on-Rails Slides]
 +
:[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w5I8kxqDSeo Video] (28 minutes)
  
==September 7: Labor Day (no class) ==
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Driverless Philosophy
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:[https://buffalo.box.com/v/Driverless-Philosophy Slides]
 +
:[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=29GE_p5GEtY Video] (73 minutes)
  
==September 14: The Ontology of Philosophy ==
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Example: The Emotion Ontology
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:[https://buffalo.box.com/s/jli8soa96pwixvs4e4r2yyq6qumt8tar Slides]
 +
:[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BYAT8vHZ8ik Video] (38 minutes)
  
:Pierre Grenon and Barry Smith, “[http://www.springerlink.com/content/k414rg8158585g37/ Foundations of an Ontology of Philosophy]”, Synthese, 2011, 182 (2), 185-204.
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Readings
::Abstract: We describe an ontology of philosophy that is designed to help navigation through philosophical literature, including literature in the form of encyclopedia articles and textbooks and in both printed and digital forms. The ontology is designed also to serve integration and structuring of data pertaining to the philosophical literature, and in the long term also to support reasoning about the provenance and contents of such literature, by providing a representation of the philosophical domain that is orientated around what philosophical literature is about.  
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:Amanda Bryant, "[https://philpapers.org/rec/BRYKTC Keep the chickens cooped: the epistemic inadequacy of free range metaphysics]", ''Synthese'' 197 (5): 1867-1887. 2020.
 +
 
 +
Precursors
 +
 
 +
:[https://books.google.com/books?id=858AHFXOt5EC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=snippet&q=smith&f=false Chisholm]
 +
:[https://philpapers.org/archive/MILICA-6.pdf Ingarden]
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:Armstrong, D. M. ''[https://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199590612.001.0001/acprof-9780199590612 Sketch for a Systematic Metaphysics]'', Oxford University Press, 2010.
 +
:[https://github.com/BFO-ontology/BFO/raw/master/docs/bfo2-reference/BFO2-Reference.pdf BFO 2.0]
 +
 
 +
==September 7: The Ontology of Philosophy ==
 +
 
 +
Making the Content of Philosophy Accessible Systematically
 +
 
 +
Pierre Grenon and Barry Smith, “[http://ontology.buffalo.edu/smith/articles/Ontology_of_Philosophy.pdf Foundations of an Ontology of Philosophy]”, Synthese, 2011, 182 (2), 185-204.
 +
 
 +
Describes an ontology of philosophy that is designed to help navigation through philosophical literature, including literature in the form of encyclopedia articles and textbooks and in both printed and digital forms. The ontology is designed also to serve integration and structuring of data pertaining to the philosophical literature, and in the long term also to support reasoning about the provenance and contents of such literature, by providing a representation of the philosophical domain that is orientated around what philosophical literature is about.  
 +
:[http://ontology.buffalo.edu/philosophome/pdcphilontology-v1.owl OWL]
 +
:[http://ontology.buffalo.edu/philosophome/philonto/philontologyX013.gif gif]
 +
:[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5HV3M0NvyPM Video] 40 minutes
 +
 +
 
 +
Overview
 
:[http://philosophome.org/ The Philosophome]
 
:[http://philosophome.org/ The Philosophome]
 +
 +
 +
Ontology of Philosophy
 +
:[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5HV3M0NvyPM  Video] 40 minutes
 +
:[https://buffalo.box.com/v/Philosophome-2015  Slides]
 +
 +
 +
History of Philosophy
 +
:[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YkYlY2jnRxc Video] 98 minutes
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:[https://buffalo.box.com/v/Future-of-History Slides]
 +
:N. Milkov, [https://philpapers.org/rec/MILALH A Logical–Contextual History of Philosophy], ''Southwest Philosophy Review'' 27 (1):21-29 (2011)
 +
 +
 +
Examples of philosophical categorizations
 
:[https://philpapers.org/browse/all List of philpapers.org Categories]
 
:[https://philpapers.org/browse/all List of philpapers.org Categories]
 +
:Dimitris Gakis (2016) "[https://doi.org/10.1080/05568641.2016.1188547 Philosophy as Paradigms: An Account of a Contextual Metaphilosophical Perspective]", ''Philosophical Papers'', 45:1-2, 209-239.
 +
:[https://publiscologne.th-koeln.de/frontdoor/deliver/index/docId/1363/file/MAT_Seidlmayer.pdf Eva Seidlmayer, ''An ontology of digital objects in philosophy'']
 +
 +
:Advancing beyond the [https://philpapers.org/browse/all PhilPapers Table of Categories]
 +
 +
==September 14: An Introduction to Basic Formal Ontology==
 +
 +
Background: Robert Arp, Barry Smith and Andrew Spear, [https://mitpress.mit.edu/index.php?q=books/building-ontologies-basic-formal-ontology Building Ontologies with Basic Formal Ontology], Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, August 2015.
 +
 +
The ISO Standardization Process
  
==September 21: An Introduction to Basic Formal Ontology==
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ISO/IEC 21838
 +
:[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_0masZPGLb0 Video] (20 minutes)
 +
:[https://buffalo.box.com/v/Ontology-Summit-2020 Slides]
  
 +
Basic Formal Ontology
 +
:[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p0buEjR3t8A Video] (70 minutes)
 
:[https://buffalo.box.com/v/ICBO-2019-BFO-Tutorial Slides]
 
:[https://buffalo.box.com/v/ICBO-2019-BFO-Tutorial Slides]
:[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p0buEjR3t8A Video]
 
:Robert Arp, Barry Smith and Andrew Spear, [https://mitpress.mit.edu/index.php?q=books/building-ontologies-basic-formal-ontology Building Ontologies with Basic Formal Ontology], Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, August 2015.
 
  
==September 28: Methods==
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Basic Formal Ontology Applied to the Ontology of Language
 +
:[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y3btP1InPZY&list=PLyngZgIl3WTjK-D7L1pdtpqzxIBhjBsb_&index=5 Video] (40 minutes)
 +
:[https://buffalo.box.com/v/Immortality-and-Turing-Test Slides]
  
:All editions of TopBraid (including the free edition) allow editors to establish links using the GUI to dbpedia resources, and to download resources and their annotations from dbpedia as part of their local knowledge base. Despite DBpedia being a hot mess, there is a lot of interesting content therein. It would be very easy to build an exercise around this for students, who could use it for exploratory purposes, enrichment, testing, pointing out errors, etc…
+
--
 +
Modes of Philosophical Derailment / Why Computer Science Needs Philosophy
 +
:"... philosophical problems arise when language goes on holiday.” Wittgenstein, ''Philosophical Investigations'', §38
 +
:Preliminary reading: "[http://hl7-watch.blogspot.com/2008/02/weight-of-baby.html The Weight of the Baby]"
 +
:[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0yfhUt1LrIo Video] (51 minutes)
 +
:[https://buffalo.box.com/s/v04c0oaywzts54m2qqnmswigwmhjc6l6 Slides]
  
[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O-KFEMzx0MY Tutorial]
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==September 21: Philosophy of Language ==
  
==October 5: Philosophy of Science ==
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Truth and the Ontology of Maps
 +
:[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jqqq7eBnZvE&list=PLyngZgIl3WTjK-D7L1pdtpqzxIBhjBsb_ Video] (20 minutes)
 +
:https://buffalo.box.com/v/Truth-and-the-Ontology-of-Maps Slides]
 +
 
 +
Ontology of Language, Ontology of Terrorism, Ontology of Obligations
 +
:[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G4lg1_-XpiE&list=PLyngZgIl3WTjK-D7L1pdtpqzxIBhjBsb_&index=4 Video] (88 minutes)
 +
:[https://buffalo.box.com/v/Ontology-of-Language Slides]
 +
 
 +
Command and Control
 +
:[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U8LTHhpF4Wk Video] (60 minutes)
 +
:[https://buffalo.box.com/v/Command-and-Control Slides]
 +
 
 +
:Karl Bühler on logical vs. material derailment (''Entgleisung''). See Mulligan [https://www.unige.ch/lettres/philo/files/6614/2644/2862/mulligan_EssenceLanguageWBBB4.pdf here].
 +
 
 +
:Nosology of Continental Philosophy. See Mulligan [https://www.unige.ch/lettres/philo/files/8614/2644/2135/mulligan_PostContinentalPhilosophy1.pdf here].
 +
 
 +
==September 28: Philosophy of Science ==
 +
 
 +
The Replication Crisis in Pharmaceutical Science
 +
:[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3QPpUhVOiPE Video] (70 minutes)
 +
:[https://buffalo.box.com/s/gonk4yplf5niimpwi429ii89d4r1dzmn Slides]
 +
 
 +
Quantities as Fiat Universals
 +
:[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xVVUH00cMNY&list=PLyngZgIl3WTj8kH_CMlBPVhaJT45rbPWw&index=17&t=0s Video] (78 minutes)
 +
:[https://buffalo.box.com/v/Quantities-as-fiat-universals Slides]
 +
 
 +
Functions, Dispositions and Capabilities
 +
:[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gJxfZ3cq5jE Video] (47 minutes)
 +
:[https://buffalo.box.com/s/2zgx6emfas2t9ocik7n0c5ldkafymopc Slides]
  
:Models and simulations
 
 
:[https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154556 A. Bandrowski, et al., "The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations", ''PLoS ONE'', 2016]
 
:[https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154556 A. Bandrowski, et al., "The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations", ''PLoS ONE'', 2016]
  
==October 12: Philosophical Logic ==
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==October 5: Ontology of Documents ==
  
:Truth
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The Ontology of Document Acts (2005)
:Werner Ceusters and Barry Smith, "[https://philpapers.org/archive/CEUATF.pdf Aboutness: Towards Foundations for the Information Artifact Ontology]", ''Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Biomedical Ontology'' (ICBO). CEUR vol. 1515. pp. 1-5 (2015).
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:[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TvwHy2-3Lss&feature=youtu.be&t=2143 Video] (50 minutes)
 +
:[https://buffalo.box.com/v/Bozzi-Prize-Lecture Slides]
 +
 
 +
Documents and Massive Social Agency (2013)
 +
:[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I2vvVM7ff28 Video] (21 minutes)
 +
 
 +
From Speech Acts to Document Acts (2018)
 +
:[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5chInYVVypI Video] (24 minutes)
 +
:[https://buffalo.box.com/s/4v54yvkduv2r5qrdjo1racc355ywmj03 Slides]
 +
 
 +
Searle on the Ontology of Money
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:[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dHo-Tn_v8xM Video] (39 minutes)
 +
:[https://buffalo.box.com/s/ipuxsaapkdne29g2lhqsg70kahnssra1 Slides]
 +
 
 +
The Documentome
 +
:[https://buffalo.app.box.com/s/swb8dupnopuox0o9ihl8j8gv0sxxp8ay Slides]
  
==October 19: Cognitive Science ==
+
==October 12: Introduction to Protégé ==
  
:Mental Functioning Ontology
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Includes introduction to the ontology authoring and editing software at [https://protege.stanford.edu/]
  
:Emotion Ontology
+
==October 19: Metaphysics ==
  
:Cognitive Process Ontology
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:Mind, Language and Emotions: From Austrian Philosophy to Contemporary Realist Ontology
 +
:[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Vw3R5UCcDI Video] (67 minutes)
 +
:[http://ontology.buffalo.edu/14/Rijeka/Ontology-of-Documents-May-2014-Rijeka.ppt Slides]
  
==October 26: Metaphysics ==
+
:What are capabilities?
 +
:[https://buffalo.box.com/s/kvvq8qjb22rc80k8j7g4w7odi1hkhztz Slides] (60 minutes)
 +
:[https://youtu.be/gHxDOFXu6CA Video]
  
:Barry Smith and Werner Ceusters, "[https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3104413/ Ontological realism: A methodology for coordinated evolution of scientific ontologies]", ''Applied Ontology'', 2010 Nov 15; 5(3-4): 139–188.
+
:The Great Debate: John Sowa vs. Barry Smith
 +
:[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TDJk9xTvdqY Video of BS contribution] (30 minutes)
 +
:[http://bit.ly/2row7xT Slides of BS contribution]
 +
:[http://bit.ly/2robKkp First 2 hours of whole debate]
 +
:[http://bit.ly/2rnIdHE Final part of whole debate]
  
==November 2: Philosophy of Language==
+
==October 26: Social Ontology, Norms and Values ==
  
From Speech Acts to Document Acts
+
Deontic Entities
  
:[https://buffalo.box.com/v/Speech-Acts-to-Document-Acts Slides]
+
:Deontology Ontology: Towards an Ontology of Deontic Entities
 +
::[http://ontology.buffalo.edu/smith/ppt/documents/Deontic-Entities-Geneva-July-2016.pdf Slides]  
 +
::[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WIJJlnLLWGU Video] (36 minutes)
  
==November 9: Norms and Values ==
+
:Document Acts and the Ontology of Social Reality
 +
::[http://ontology.buffalo.edu/14/Rijeka/Ontology-of-Documents-May-2014-Rijeka.ppt Slides]
 +
::[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4lg4z2up6HI Video] (103 minutes)
  
Deontic Entities in Basic Formal Ontology
+
:The Ontology of the Organigram
 +
::[http://ontology.buffalo.edu/16/Organigram.pdf Slides]
 +
::[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bp3B2GkgaB8 Video] (58 minutes)
  
 +
Background
 
:[https://buffalo.box.com/v/Deontic-Entities-in-BFO Slides]
 
:[https://buffalo.box.com/v/Deontic-Entities-in-BFO Slides]
 +
:[https://search.proquest.com/openview/4ddf6056e26862d1573f674fe123b20b/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=18750&diss=y Social Ontology and Social Normativity]
  
==November 16: Capabilities ==
+
==November 2: Artificial Intelligence==
 +
 
 +
:"[https://arxiv.org/pdf/1901.02918.pdf Making Artificial Intelligence Meaningful Again]", ''Synthese'', [https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11229-019-02192-y online first]
 +
 
 +
:"[https://arxiv.org/pdf/1906.05833.pdf There is no General Artificial Intelligence"], https://arxiv.org/pdf/1906.05833.pdf
 +
 
 +
==November 9: Capabilities ==
  
 
:Capabilities
 
:Capabilities
Line 88: Line 251:
 
:[https://philarchive.org/archive/MERMC Eric Merrell, et al., "Mental Capabilities", ICBO, 2019]
 
:[https://philarchive.org/archive/MERMC Eric Merrell, et al., "Mental Capabilities", ICBO, 2019]
  
==November 23: Philosophy of Information ==
+
==November 16: Philosophy of Information ==
  
 
:The Information Ontology
 
:The Information Ontology
Line 94: Line 257:
 
:[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PBKsupBquok&list=PLyngZgIl3WTi9ez4OjbXDlYtLb-vSxLHc Video]
 
:[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PBKsupBquok&list=PLyngZgIl3WTi9ez4OjbXDlYtLb-vSxLHc Video]
  
==November 30: Social Ontology ==
+
:Werner Ceusters and Barry Smith, "[https://philpapers.org/archive/CEUATF.pdf Aboutness: Towards Foundations for the Information Artifact Ontology]", ''Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Biomedical Ontology'' (ICBO). CEUR vol. 1515. pp. 1-5 (2015).
 +
 
 +
==November 23: Philosophy of Action ==
 +
 
 +
==November 30==
  
==December 7: Student Projects ==
+
==December 7: Student Projects (Remote Session) ==
  
 
1:00  
 
1:00  
Line 112: Line 279:
 
! Assessment Method(s)
 
! Assessment Method(s)
 
|-
 
|-
| The student will acquire a knowledge of the principles and procedures of intelligence analysis, and an insight into the philosophical methods and theories relevant thereto. The student will also acquire a familiarity with current theoretical research in areas relating to intelligence analysis.  
+
| The student will acquire a knowledge of the principles and procedures of ontology, and an insight into the philosophical methods and theories relevant thereto. The student will also acquire a familiarity with research in formal philosophy and analytic metaphysics.  
 
| Lectures and class discussions
 
| Lectures and class discussions
 
| Review of reading matter and associated online content and participation in class discussions
 
| Review of reading matter and associated online content and participation in class discussions
 
|-
 
|-
| The student will acquire experience in practical tasks involved in intelligence analysis
+
| The student will acquire experience in using the methods employed in applied ontology, especially as applied to philosophical theories and systems
 +
 
 
| Participation in practical experiments
 
| Participation in practical experiments
 
| Review of results  
 
| Review of results  
 
|-
 
|-
| The student will acquire experience in communicating the results of work on intelligence analysis and its philosophical understanding
+
| The student will acquire experience in communicating the results of work using ontologies and in the potential of modern applied ontology as a tool to aid philosophical understanding
 
| Creation of youtube presentation and of associated documentation
 
| Creation of youtube presentation and of associated documentation
 
| Review of results
 
| Review of results
Line 130: Line 298:
 
=='''Important Dates'''==
 
=='''Important Dates'''==
 
{|
 
{|
|  Sep 20 || - about now start to discuss by email the content of your video and essay with Drs Smith and Limbaugh
+
|  Sep 1 || - about now start to discuss by email the content of your essay or essays with Dr Smith
 
|-
 
|-
|  Sep 28 || - submit a proposed title and abstract
+
|  Sep 14 || - submit proposed title and abstract
 
|-
 
|-
Oct 31 || - submit a table of contents and 300 word summary plus draft of associated ppt slides
+
Sep 28 || - submit a table of contents and 300 word summary plus draft of associated ppt slides
 
|-
 
|-
Nov 20 || - submit penultimate draft of essay and powerpoint
+
Oct 15 || - submit first draft of essay (~1000 words) and associated powerpoint (~10 slides)
 
|-
 
|-
Dec2 || - class presentation
+
Nov 15 || - submit second draft of essay (~2000 words) and associated powerpoint (~10 slides)
 
|-
 
|-
|  Dec 4 || - submit final version of essay and powerpoint and upload final version of video to youtube
+
|  Dec7 || - class presentation
 +
|-
 +
|  Dec 11 || - submit final version of essay and powerpoint and upload final version of video to youtube
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 151: Line 321:
 
All students are required to take an active part in class (and where relevant on-line) discussions throughout the semester.  
 
All students are required to take an active part in class (and where relevant on-line) discussions throughout the semester.  
  
II: preparation of a youtube video and associated documentation (including powerpoint slides and essay).  
+
II: preparation of an essay, and associated powerpoint slides and recorded presentation.  
  
Content and structure of the essay should be discussed with Drs Smith or Limbaugh. Where the essay takes the form of the documentation of a specific ontology developed by the student it should include:
+
Content and structure of the essay should be discussed with Dr Smith. Where the essay takes the form of the documentation of a specific ontology developed by the student it should include:
 
:Statement of scope of the ontology
 
:Statement of scope of the ontology
 
:Summary of existing ontologies in the relevant domain
 
:Summary of existing ontologies in the relevant domain
Line 163: Line 333:
  
 
Weighting Assignment
 
Weighting Assignment
:40%    - class discussions   
+
:20%    - class discussions   
:20%    - youtube video presentation
+
:15%    - youtube video presentation
:20%    - powerpoint slides  
+
:15%    - powerpoint slides  
:20%    - essay / ontology content
+
:50%    - essay  
  
 
'''Final Grades'''
 
'''Final Grades'''
Line 209: Line 379:
 
'''Accessibility resources:''' If you have any disability which requires reasonable accommodations to enable you to participate in this course, please contact the Office of Accessibility Resources in 60 Capen Hall, 645-2608 and also the instructor of this course during the first week of class. The office will provide you with information and review appropriate arrangements for reasonable accommodations, which can be found on the web [http://www.buffalo.edu/studentlife/who-we-are/departments/accessibility.html here].
 
'''Accessibility resources:''' If you have any disability which requires reasonable accommodations to enable you to participate in this course, please contact the Office of Accessibility Resources in 60 Capen Hall, 645-2608 and also the instructor of this course during the first week of class. The office will provide you with information and review appropriate arrangements for reasonable accommodations, which can be found on the web [http://www.buffalo.edu/studentlife/who-we-are/departments/accessibility.html here].
  
== '''Background Reading and Video Materials''' ==
+
'''University suppert services:''' Students are often unaware of university support services. For example, the Center for Excellence in Writing provides support for written work, and several tutoring centers on campus provide academic success support and resources.
 
+
*[http://ontology.buffalo.edu/smith/ Streaming video presentations and training courses in ontology]
+
 
+
*[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877050913000690 Concept Analysis to Enrich Manufacturing Service Capability Models]
+
 
+
*[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166361514000438 Supply Chain Management Ontology]
+
 
+
*[http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40436-014-0073-2 Ontology-based interoperability solutions for textile supply chain]
+
 
+
*[http://ontology.buffalo.edu/smith/articles/ontologies.htm Ontology: An Introduction]
+
 
+
*[http://ontology.buffalo.edu/smith/articles/Horizontal-integration.pdf Horizontal Integration of Warfighter Intelligence Data]
+
  
*[http://ncorwiki.buffalo.edu/index.php/Ontology_for_Intelligence,_Defense_and_Security Ontology for Intelligence, Defense and Security (2012)]
+
'''Available resources on sexual assault:''' UB is committed to providing an environment free of all forms of discrimination and sexual harassment, including sexual assault, domestic and dating violence and stalking. If you have experienced gender-based violence (intimate partner violence, attempted or completed sexual assault, harassment, coercion, stalking, etc.), UB has resources to help. This includes academic accommodations, health and counseling services, housing accommodations, helping with legal protective orders, and assistance with reporting the incident to police or other UB officials if you so choose. Please contact UB’s Title IX Coordinator at 716-645-2266 for more information. For confidential assistance, you may also contact a Crisis Services Campus Advocate at 716-796-4399.
  
*[http://militaryontology.org Military Ontology]
+
'''Counseiling services:''' As a student you may experience a range of issues that can cause barriers to learning or reduce your ability to participate in daily activities. These might include strained relationships, anxiety, high levels of stress, alcohol/drug problems, feeling down, health concerns, or unwanted sexual experiences. Counseling, Health Services, and Health Promotion are here to help with these or other concerns. You learn can more about these programs and services by contacting:
 +
:Counseling Services: 120 Richmond Quad (North Campus), phone 716-645-2720
 +
:Health Services: Michael Hall (South Campus), phone: 716-829-3316
 +
:Health Promotion: 114 Student Union (North Campus), phone: 716- 645-2837

Latest revision as of 13:30, 17 October 2020

Philosophy on Rails: An Introduction to Ontology

Special Topic PHI 579

Fall Semester 2020, Monday 1-3:40pm

Venue: Capen 240

Registration: Class#: 24202

Instructor: Barry Smith

Prerequisites: Open to all persons with an undergraduate degree and some knowledge of philosophy.

Office hours: By appointment via email at phismith@buffalo.edu

The Course

Course Description: Progress in philosophy has been hampered by the fact that philosophers have no shared, controlled vocabulary which they can use as a common starting point when defining their terms. Even mundane terms like ‘world’, ‘fact’, and ‘harm’ have such a variety of meanings that when competing theories use such terms their defenders can often be accused of talking past one another and of engaging in merely verbal disputes. This is in contrast to what is the case in the natural sciences, where consistent terminology – as codified for example in the Periodic Table and the International Standard System of Units – is recognized as indispensable. To put it bluntly, because of the use of standards, the natural sciences are collectively more successful than philosophers at resolving divergent points-of-view in their respective fields. Of course, the idea of developing a shared system of philosophical terms and definitions has been advanced in different forms already, for example by Aristotle in the Categories, by Leibniz in De Arte Combinatoria, by the early Wittgenstein, and by Carnap in his Logical Structure of the World. Similar methods are nowadays being successfully applied, but this is occurring primarily outside philosophy, in areas such as biomedical informatics and industrial engineering.

This course will address three goals:

First, it will explore how to create and use a standard philosophical vocabulary. This will include exploiting modern developments in computational ontology, including the world’s first international standard ontology.
Second, it will explore the ways in which building a restricted philosophical vocabulary can help to arbitrate philosophical disputes in areas such as time, mental content, modality, and obligation.
Third, it will provide an introduction to the methods of contemporary applied ontological that are being used both inside and outside philosophy.
Fourth, it will take students through all the steps involved in writing a paper and submitting it for publication and/or for presentation at a conference. Some of these papers will be authored by teams of up to 3 people (students can write alone, or belong to up to two teams).

Course Structure: This is a three credit hour graduate seminar, with a practical exercise forming part of each class. Students will be trained in the basic tools and methods of ontology, and of how ontology can be used to help consistent formalization of philosophical and other theories. In the initial weeks the practical exercise will take the form of one-to-one interactions with Dr Smith determining the topics and strategy for paper writing. In the middle weeks it will take the form of presentation of critiques of submitted drafts. In the final sessions it will be structured around preparation of powerpoint slides to support class presentations by students of their written work, presentations which will be recorded. .

Target Audience: The course is open to all interested students with an undergraduate degree and some knowledge of philosophy.


Preamble

Background Reading: What's wrong with analytic philosophy?

The philosophical methodology that underlies this course produced Basic Formal Ontology (BFO), which was approved by the International Standards Organization in 2019 as standard ISO/IED 21838-2. A textual version of BFO is available here. A BFO textbook is available ;https://mitpress.mit.edu/books/building-ontologies-basic-formal-ontology here].

Students are invited to explore possible ways of doing philosophy constrained by BFO or by similar top-level ontologies.

They are invited to identify ways in which using BFO and ontologies conformant to BFO might be of benefit to philosophers, for example in tagging philosophical literature to make it more easily discoverable. How would one build out an ontology, whose terms could be used to tag philosophical literature? How does the categorization strategy used by PhilPapers measure up to the standards of what would be needed by an ontology-grounded tagging system?

A collection of uses of BFO can be found here.

Proposed Topics for Papers

The topics listed under successive dates, below, are intended at this stage only to provide an initial set of ideas for possible papers. We will decide as the semester proceeds on what the focus should be for each week. Here are some further ideas for possible papers:

How did Austin's military experience in WWII influence his mode of doing philosophy (Or: Can philosophy be performed through teamwork?)
How can the Philpapers category system be improved?
How can the rules for categorizing papers in Philpapers be improved?
Formalizing the Amartya Sen/Martha Nussbaum ontology of capabilities
In many cases papers would consist in presentations of ontologies or classifications or sets of formal or semi-formal definitions of philosophical relevant terms. Examples of the such classifications might be:
1. A classification of responses to the Gettier argument
2. A classification of (a) definitions of disease coupled with (b) proposed counterexamples for each disease-type.
3. A comprehensive catalogue of definitions of 'harm'
4. A comprehensive catalogue of definitions of causality
Formalization of the content of any philosophical work, as for example in Charles Jarrett, "The Logical Structure of Spinoza's Ethics, Part I", Synthese, 37 (1), 1978

August 31: Introduction: Philosophy on Rails

Philosophy on Rails

Slides
Video (28 minutes)

Driverless Philosophy

Slides
Video (73 minutes)

Example: The Emotion Ontology

Slides
Video (38 minutes)

Readings

Amanda Bryant, "Keep the chickens cooped: the epistemic inadequacy of free range metaphysics", Synthese 197 (5): 1867-1887. 2020.

Precursors

Chisholm
Ingarden
Armstrong, D. M. Sketch for a Systematic Metaphysics, Oxford University Press, 2010.
BFO 2.0

September 7: The Ontology of Philosophy

Making the Content of Philosophy Accessible Systematically

Pierre Grenon and Barry Smith, “Foundations of an Ontology of Philosophy”, Synthese, 2011, 182 (2), 185-204.

Describes an ontology of philosophy that is designed to help navigation through philosophical literature, including literature in the form of encyclopedia articles and textbooks and in both printed and digital forms. The ontology is designed also to serve integration and structuring of data pertaining to the philosophical literature, and in the long term also to support reasoning about the provenance and contents of such literature, by providing a representation of the philosophical domain that is orientated around what philosophical literature is about.

OWL
gif
Video 40 minutes


Overview

The Philosophome


Ontology of Philosophy

Video 40 minutes
Slides


History of Philosophy

Video 98 minutes
Slides
N. Milkov, A Logical–Contextual History of Philosophy, Southwest Philosophy Review 27 (1):21-29 (2011)


Examples of philosophical categorizations

List of philpapers.org Categories
Dimitris Gakis (2016) "Philosophy as Paradigms: An Account of a Contextual Metaphilosophical Perspective", Philosophical Papers, 45:1-2, 209-239.
Eva Seidlmayer, An ontology of digital objects in philosophy
Advancing beyond the PhilPapers Table of Categories

September 14: An Introduction to Basic Formal Ontology

Background: Robert Arp, Barry Smith and Andrew Spear, Building Ontologies with Basic Formal Ontology, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, August 2015.

The ISO Standardization Process

ISO/IEC 21838

Video (20 minutes)
Slides

Basic Formal Ontology

Video (70 minutes)
Slides

Basic Formal Ontology Applied to the Ontology of Language

Video (40 minutes)
Slides

-- Modes of Philosophical Derailment / Why Computer Science Needs Philosophy

"... philosophical problems arise when language goes on holiday.” Wittgenstein, Philosophical Investigations, §38
Preliminary reading: "The Weight of the Baby"
Video (51 minutes)
Slides

September 21: Philosophy of Language

Truth and the Ontology of Maps

Video (20 minutes)
https://buffalo.box.com/v/Truth-and-the-Ontology-of-Maps Slides]

Ontology of Language, Ontology of Terrorism, Ontology of Obligations

Video (88 minutes)
Slides

Command and Control

Video (60 minutes)
Slides
Karl Bühler on logical vs. material derailment (Entgleisung). See Mulligan here.
Nosology of Continental Philosophy. See Mulligan here.

September 28: Philosophy of Science

The Replication Crisis in Pharmaceutical Science

Video (70 minutes)
Slides

Quantities as Fiat Universals

Video (78 minutes)
Slides

Functions, Dispositions and Capabilities

Video (47 minutes)
Slides
A. Bandrowski, et al., "The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations", PLoS ONE, 2016

October 5: Ontology of Documents

The Ontology of Document Acts (2005)

Video (50 minutes)
Slides

Documents and Massive Social Agency (2013)

Video (21 minutes)

From Speech Acts to Document Acts (2018)

Video (24 minutes)
Slides

Searle on the Ontology of Money

Video (39 minutes)
Slides

The Documentome

Slides

October 12: Introduction to Protégé

Includes introduction to the ontology authoring and editing software at [1]

October 19: Metaphysics

Mind, Language and Emotions: From Austrian Philosophy to Contemporary Realist Ontology
Video (67 minutes)
Slides
What are capabilities?
Slides (60 minutes)
Video
The Great Debate: John Sowa vs. Barry Smith
Video of BS contribution (30 minutes)
Slides of BS contribution
First 2 hours of whole debate
Final part of whole debate

October 26: Social Ontology, Norms and Values

Deontic Entities

Deontology Ontology: Towards an Ontology of Deontic Entities
Slides
Video (36 minutes)
Document Acts and the Ontology of Social Reality
Slides
Video (103 minutes)
The Ontology of the Organigram
Slides
Video (58 minutes)

Background

Slides
Social Ontology and Social Normativity

November 2: Artificial Intelligence

"Making Artificial Intelligence Meaningful Again", Synthese, online first
"There is no General Artificial Intelligence", https://arxiv.org/pdf/1906.05833.pdf

November 9: Capabilities

Capabilities
Slides
Reading
Eric Merrell, et al., "Mental Capabilities", ICBO, 2019

November 16: Philosophy of Information

The Information Ontology
Video
Werner Ceusters and Barry Smith, "Aboutness: Towards Foundations for the Information Artifact Ontology", Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Biomedical Ontology (ICBO). CEUR vol. 1515. pp. 1-5 (2015).

November 23: Philosophy of Action

November 30

December 7: Student Projects (Remote Session)

1:00

Reading


Student Learning Outcomes

Program Outcomes/Competencies Instructional Method(s) Assessment Method(s)
The student will acquire a knowledge of the principles and procedures of ontology, and an insight into the philosophical methods and theories relevant thereto. The student will also acquire a familiarity with research in formal philosophy and analytic metaphysics. Lectures and class discussions Review of reading matter and associated online content and participation in class discussions
The student will acquire experience in using the methods employed in applied ontology, especially as applied to philosophical theories and systems Participation in practical experiments Review of results
The student will acquire experience in communicating the results of work using ontologies and in the potential of modern applied ontology as a tool to aid philosophical understanding Creation of youtube presentation and of associated documentation Review of results

How to Write an Essay

Jordan Peterson's Essay Writing Guide

Important Dates

Sep 1 - about now start to discuss by email the content of your essay or essays with Dr Smith
Sep 14 - submit proposed title and abstract
Sep 28 - submit a table of contents and 300 word summary plus draft of associated ppt slides
Oct 15 - submit first draft of essay (~1000 words) and associated powerpoint (~10 slides)
Nov 15 - submit second draft of essay (~2000 words) and associated powerpoint (~10 slides)
Dec7 - class presentation
Dec 11 - submit final version of essay and powerpoint and upload final version of video to youtube

Grading

Grading will be based on two factors:

I: understanding and criticism of the material presented in classes 1-13

All students are required to take an active part in class (and where relevant on-line) discussions throughout the semester.

II: preparation of an essay, and associated powerpoint slides and recorded presentation.

Content and structure of the essay should be discussed with Dr Smith. Where the essay takes the form of the documentation of a specific ontology developed by the student it should include:

Statement of scope of the ontology
Summary of existing ontologies in the relevant domain
Explanation of how your ontology differs from (or incorporates) these ontologies
Screenshots of parts of the ontology with some examples of important terms and definitions
Summaries of potential applications of the ontology

Grading Policy: Grading follows standard Graduate School policies. Grades will be weighted according to the following breakdown:

Weighting Assignment

20% - class discussions
15% - youtube video presentation
15% - powerpoint slides
50% - essay

Final Grades

Percentages refer to sum of assignment grades as listed above

Grade Quality Percentage

A 4.0 90.0% -100.00%
A- 3.67 87.0% - 89.9%
B+ 3.33 84.0% - 86.9%
B 3.00 80.0% - 83.9%
B- 2.67 77.0% - 79.9%
C+ 2.33 74.0% - 76.9%
C 2.00 71.0% - 73.9%
C- 1.67 68.0% - 70.9%
D+ 1.33 65.0% - 67.9%
D 1.00 62.0% - 64.9%
F 0 61.9% or below

An interim grade of Incomplete (I) may be assigned if the student has not completed all requirements for the course. An interim grade of 'I' shall not be assigned to a student who did not attend the course. The default grade accompanying an interim grade of 'I' shall be 'U' and will be displayed on the UB record as 'IU.' The default Unsatisfactory (U) grade shall become the permanent course grade of record if the 'IU' is not changed through formal notice by the instructor upon the student's completion of the course.

Assignment of an interim 'IU' is at the discretion of the instructor. A grade of 'IU' can be assigned only if successful completion of unfulfilled course requirements can result in a final grade better than the default 'U' grade. The student should have a passing average in the requirements already completed. The instructor shall provide the student specification, in writing, of the requirements to be fulfilled.

The university’s Graduate Incomplete Policy can be found here.

Related Policies and Services

Academic integrity is a fundamental university value. Through the honest completion of academic work, students sustain the integrity of the university while facilitating the university's imperative for the transmission of knowledge and culture based upon the generation of new and innovative ideas. See http://grad.buffalo.edu/Academics/Policies-Procedures/Academic-Integrity.html.

Accessibility resources: If you have any disability which requires reasonable accommodations to enable you to participate in this course, please contact the Office of Accessibility Resources in 60 Capen Hall, 645-2608 and also the instructor of this course during the first week of class. The office will provide you with information and review appropriate arrangements for reasonable accommodations, which can be found on the web here.

University suppert services: Students are often unaware of university support services. For example, the Center for Excellence in Writing provides support for written work, and several tutoring centers on campus provide academic success support and resources.

Available resources on sexual assault: UB is committed to providing an environment free of all forms of discrimination and sexual harassment, including sexual assault, domestic and dating violence and stalking. If you have experienced gender-based violence (intimate partner violence, attempted or completed sexual assault, harassment, coercion, stalking, etc.), UB has resources to help. This includes academic accommodations, health and counseling services, housing accommodations, helping with legal protective orders, and assistance with reporting the incident to police or other UB officials if you so choose. Please contact UB’s Title IX Coordinator at 716-645-2266 for more information. For confidential assistance, you may also contact a Crisis Services Campus Advocate at 716-796-4399.

Counseiling services: As a student you may experience a range of issues that can cause barriers to learning or reduce your ability to participate in daily activities. These might include strained relationships, anxiety, high levels of stress, alcohol/drug problems, feeling down, health concerns, or unwanted sexual experiences. Counseling, Health Services, and Health Promotion are here to help with these or other concerns. You learn can more about these programs and services by contacting:

Counseling Services: 120 Richmond Quad (North Campus), phone 716-645-2720
Health Services: Michael Hall (South Campus), phone: 716-829-3316
Health Promotion: 114 Student Union (North Campus), phone: 716- 645-2837