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The goal of the National Center for Ontological Research is to advance ontological investigation within the United States. NCOR serves as a vehicle to coordinate, to enhance, to publicize, and to seek funding for ontological research activities. It lays a special focus on ontology training and on the establishment of tools and measures for quality assurance of ontologies. NCOR provides ontology services to multiple organizations, including the US Department of Defense.


Working group seeks to extend the depth and functionality of biomedical ontologies, October 14, 2017

Doctoral Candidate Invited to Work on United Nations Project,

Advantages of the Financial Report Ontology in Accounting Research, February 23, 2013

UB Ontologists Win Bioinformatics Integration Award to Support National Institutes of Health

Announcing Clinical and Translational Science Ontology Affinity Group

Information Overload in the Era of Big Data

Botanists building ontologies to cope with information overload

UB Applied Informatics Portal unveiled.


Problems in Ontology, Department of Philosophy, University at Buffalo, NY, Mondays from 4-6pm, August 29 - December 5, 2012

Ontological Engineering, Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University at Buffalo, NY, Fall 2013

Ontological Engineering, Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Department of Computer Science and Department of Philosophy University at Buffalo, NY, Mondays from 4-7pm, August 25 - December 1, 2014

Analytical Metaphysics, Department of Philosophy, University at Buffalo, NY, Tuesdays 1-3:50pm, Spring Semester, 2016

Biomedical Ontology Departments of Philosophy and Biomedical Informatics, University at Buffalo, Fall Semester 2016

Applied Ontology 2017, Spring Semester Online Course, Department of Philosophy, University at Buffalo

Advanced Biomedical Ontology 2017, Fall Semester, Departments of Philosophy and Biomedical Informatics, University at Buffalo


How to Develop and Use OBO Foundry Ontologies, Tutorial and Workshop at ICBO, Graz, Austria, July 21, 2012

Basic Formal Ontology 2.0: Tutorial at ICBO/FOIS, Graz, Austria, July 25, 2012

Introduction to Protégé, Tutorial, Buffalo, NY, August 11-12, 2012

Basic Formal Ontology 2.0, Tutorial, Buffalo, NY, August 18-19, 2012

Tutorial: Information Ontologies for the Intelligence Community, [ STIDS Conference, November 11, 2013

Tutorial: Ontology of Military Planning and Operations Assessment, STIDS Conference, November 18, 2014

Tutorial: Basic Formal Ontology 2015, International Conference on Biomedical Ontology, Lisbon, 2015

Defining Ontology

An ontology is a representation of some part of reality, (e.g. medicine, social reality, physics, etc.). Smith states that: “Ontology is the science of what is, of the kinds and structures of objects, properties, events, processes and relations in every area of reality…Ontology seeks to provide a definitive and exhaustive classification of entities in all spheres of being.”1 To be an accurate representation of reality an ontology includes the types of entities and events in a given domain (along with their definitions) arranged in a hierarchical structure, along with relations (such as part-of, depends-on, caused-by, etc. where necessary). Ontologies enable the formulation of robust and shareable descriptions of a given domain by providing a common controlled vocabulary for doctrine writers, IT Developers, and war-fighters alike, thereby allowing these disparate communities to communicate with each other. An ontology should be a shared resource between communities, and its continued collaborative development should support the integration of information and facilitate knowledge discovery.2 These two goals are realized by ensuring wide dissemination of the ontology, so that it will be used by many stakeholders, and its terms will be correspondingly familiar and readily used for search.

The Philosophome

Philosophome Website

Philosophome Wiki

Semantics of Biodiversity

Paper: Semantics in Support of Biodiversity Knowledge Discovery (PLoS ONE, 2013)

Video Presentations from: Semantics of Biodiversity Workshop (2012)

Ontologies as a method of viewing data
Basic Formal Ontology (BFO)
How to build an ontology with BFO
Tracking referents with Instance Unique Identifiers (IUIs)
Tracking Changes in Our Understanding of Reality: Reality vs. Beliefs
Darwin Core (DwC) and Basic Formal Ontology: Putting it All Together
Building Darwin Core top-down in BFO
Organisms, photographs, media
How to re-use ontologies
Principles of singular nouns, secondary use, understandability
Writing good definitions (DwC Examples)
Management strategies
Ontologies for reuse (BFO, EnvO, IDO, OBI, Plant Ontology , Uberon, IAO)
Educational resources (OBI, Protege, BFO)

Finance and Economics

An Application of Basic Formal Ontology to the Ontology of Services and Commodities, Institute for Business Informatics, University of Koblenz, Germany July 23, 2013

Barry Smith, Reference Data Integration: A Strategy for the Future, Financial Reference Data Management Conference (FIMA), New York, March 2012

Military and Intelligence Ontology

JFCOM: Semantic Web and Joint Training (2010)

I2WD: Semantic Enhancement for DSGS-A: Distributed Development of a Shared Semantic Resource (2012-13)

I2WD: PED Fusion via Enterprise Ontology

Common Core Ontologies (preliminary statement)

Joint Doctrine Ontology

Ontology of Planning

Ontology of Planning

Ontology of Engineering

Bob Young: Towards a Reference Ontology for Manufacturing (2016)

Ontology of Engineering

Product Life Cycle Ontologies

Modeling and Simulation

Materials Ontology

Toshihiro Ashino and Mitsutane Fujita: Definition of a Web Ontology for Design-Oriented Material Selection (2006)

file archive
Steel Industry Ontology / .owl file
A Systematic Approach to Developing Ontologies for Manufacturing Service Modeling

Buffalo Engineering Ontology

Ontology for Clinical and Translational Science

Clinical and Translational Science Ontology Group

Immunology Ontologies

Microbiome Ontology

The Apollo Structured Vocabulary: an OWL2 ontology of phenomena in infectious disease epidemiology and population biology for use in epidemic simulation

MicrobiomeDB: a systems biology platform for integrating, mining and analyzing microbiome experiments

Human Microbiome Project

Earth micro biome Project Ontology:EMPO

Parts and Wholes: The Human Microbiome, Ecological Ontology, and the Challenges of Community

Collective bio-molecular processes: The hidden ontology of systems biology

A review of methods and databases for metagenomic classification and assembly

Suggested Reading

Ontology: An Introduction

Coordinated Evolution of Biomedical Ontologies

Avoiding Perspective-Relative Silos

Universal Core Semantic Layer

Training Videos

Ontology for Intelligence, Defense and Security

A Repeatable Process for Ontology Development

Avoiding Semantic Stovepipes: Five Ontological Principles for Interoperability

War-Fighter Ontology

Studying Ontology in Buffalo

Areas of Study

Careers in ontology